Ethnographic Heritage

Our ethnographic heritage is made up by tangible movable and immovable heritage, as well as the activities and the knowledge that are relevant forms of culture and traditional ways of life of Galician culture in their material and immaterial aspects.

All the items of our ethnographic heritage – granaries on pillars, wayside offertory boxes devoted to the souls of Purgatory, watermills, communal ovens, etc….- are listed. Some of them – if they meet certain requisites – can be also listed as BICs (Bien de Interés Cultural) (Heritage of Cultural Interest).

Ethnographic architecture is related to a great array of productive activities or to beliefs:

  • wayside architecture: “cruceiros” (wayside stone crosses), petos de ánimas (wayside offertory boxes devoted to the souls in Purgatory), etc…
  • architecture of bread: “eiras de malla” (threshing floors), “hórreos” (granaries on pillars), “muíños de auga” watermills, “fornos comunáis” (communal ovens), etc…
  • architecture of wine: “socalcos” (terraces), “lagares” (winepresses), “adegas” (wine cellars), etc.…
  • architecture of pastoralism and husbandry: “foxos de lobos” (wolf pits), “alvarizas” (traditional circular stone wall constructions encircling bee yards), “chamizos” (bothies), “pombáis” (dovecots), etc.…
  • architecture of farming: “pendellos” (sheds), “sequeiros” (dryers), etc….
  • architecture of fishing: “pesqueiras” (weirs), “salgadoiros” (salting houses), “carpinterías de ribeira” (artisanal shipyards), etc…
  • architecture of artisanal activities: “fornos de oleiros” (potters’ workshops), “telleiras” (brickmakers’ workshops), “ferrerías” (blacksmith’s shops), “batáns” (fulling mills), etc…

 

ARCHITECTURE

LAVADOIRO E CRUCEIRO
LAVOIR AND WAYSIDE STONE CROSS
(Celanova)

  • It’s located at the junction of “rúa Colón” (Colón Street) and “rúa Curros Enríquez” (Curros Enríquez Street).

 

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PETO DE ÁNIMAS
WAYSIDE OFFERTORY BOX DEVOTED TO THE SOULS IN PURGATORY
(Celanova)

  • It’s located in “rúa da Encarnación” (Encarnación Street).

 

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HÓRREOS E CRUCEIRO DA ERMIDA DA ENCARNACIÓN
GRANAIRES ON PILLARS AND WAYSIDE STONE CROSS BY THE CHAPEL OF ENCARNATION
(Celanova)

  • It’s located in “rúa da Encarnación” (Encarnación Street).

 

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LAVADOIRO CUBERTO
ROOFED LAVOIR
(Celanova (Vilanova dos Infantes))

  • It dates back to the late 18th

 

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CRUCEIRO CON COROA DE ESPIÑAS
WAYSIDE STONE CROSS BEARING A CROWN OF THORNS
(Celanova (Vilanova dos Infantes))

  • It bears several instruments of the Passion of Christ: the Crown of Thorns – in the center of the cross – and 4 Nails – one on the shaft and one on each arm of the cross.
  • It’s located in an intersection, on the way to the Church of San Salvador and its cemetery.

 

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PETO DE ÁNIMAS
WAYSIDE OFFERTORY BOX DEVOTED TO THE SOULS IN PURGATORY
(Celanova (Vilanova dos Infantes))

  • Inside the niche there’s a wooden relief – depicting Saint Anthony and the souls in Purgatory- protected by an iron grid.
  • It’s located in an intersection, on the way to the Church of San Salvador and its cemetery.
    Peto de ánimas

 

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HÓRREOS
GRANARIES ON PILLARS
(Celanova (Vilanova dos Infantes))

 

 

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PETO DE ÁNIMAS DE SANTA EUFEMIA DE MILMANDA
WAYSIDE OFFERTORY BOX DEVOTED TO THE SOULS IN PURGATORY IN SANTA EUFEMIA DE MILMANDA
(Celanova (Milmanda))

 

CONXUNTO DE HÓRREOS
ENSEMBLE OF GRANARIES ON PILLARS
(A Merca (Santa María))

 

CRUCEIROS NO ADRO DA IGREXA DE SAN MARTIÑO DE DOMÉS
WAYSIDE STONE CROSSES IN THE ATRIUM OF THE CHURCH OF SAINT MARTIN AT DOMÉS
(Verea (Domés))

  • It’s an ensemble of 15 stone crosses – 14 of the Way of the Cross on the walls of the atrium – and another one in front of the church. The latter has a depiction of Christ crucified and Our Lady of Sorrows. It has a “pousadoiro” – a table at the base of the stone cross.
    Igrexa de San Martiño de Domés

 

ALDEA ETNOGRÁFCIA DE CONGOSTRO
CONGOSTRO ETHNOGRAPHIC VILLAGE
(Rairiz de Veiga (Congostro))

  • A traditional village of the A Limia distric: narrow streets and houses grouped around a threshing floor.
  • It has several samples of ethnographic architecture: a threshing floor – “Aira da Moa”-, granaries on pillars, a communal oven, watermills, wayside stone crosses, a blacksmith’s shop, and a carpenter’s workshop, etc…
  • Rairiz de Veiga is located within the Allariz Area Biosphere Reserve.
    Aldea etnográfica de Congostro

 

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ADEGAS DE VILAMEÁ
VILAMEÁ WINE CELLARS
(Lobios (Río Caldo))

  • They are rock-cut wine cellars that keep wine at constant temperature and there are also some stone winepresses. Sometimes Roman milestones of the Roman road Via XVIII – a.k.a. Via Nova– were reused as weights for presses or as pillars for doors, benches or tables.
  • Lobios is located within the Gerês-Xurés Transborder Biosphere Reserve.

 

MUSEUMS / EXHIBITIONS

CENTRO ETNOGRÁFICO DOS ZAPATEIROS E COVA DE SAN VIVIÁN
SHOEMAKERS’ ETHNOGRAPHIC CENTER AND SAINT VIVIAN’S CAVE
(Celanova (Vilanova dos Infantes))

  • Nowadays it houses an ethnographic exhibition regarding the town’s shoemaker’s guild. By means of 15 information panels one can learn about:
    • its history since the 18th century until the 1950’s.
    • its social repercussions.
    • its cultural repercussions – creation of the music band and the guild dance.
    • its economic repercussions.
  • There is also:
    • an exhibition of the tools used by shoemakers, which have been donated by former shoemakers of the town.
    • live demonstrations carried out occasionally by these shoemakers.

 

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PARQUE ETNOGRÁFICO DO RÍO ARNOIA
ARNOIA RIVER ETHNOGRAPHIC PARK
(Allariz)

 

MUSEO ETNOGRÁFICO DA LIMIA
LIMIA ETHNOGRAPHIC MUSEUM
(Vilar de Santos)

  • It houses an exhibition about the everyday life in A Limia during the time in which the “Laguna de Antela” (Antela Lagoon) still existed: linen production, and potato cultivation, etc.
  • It has a traditional general store like the ones Galician villages had in the past.
  • Vilar de Santos is located within the Allariz Area Biosphere Reserve.
    Museo Etnográfico da Limia I
    Museo Etnográfico da Limia II

 

PARQUE ETNOGRÁFICO DO PAN E DO VIÑO DE PADRENDO
BREAD AND WINE ETHNOGRAPHIC PARK AT PADRENDO
(Lobios (San María de Río Caldo))

  • Along the 900 meters of a sign-posted hiking trail within the village there are many restored architectural elements of traditional agriculture, showing the visitor all the processes of cultivation and processing that resulted in bread and wine making.
  • Lobios is located within the Gerês-Xurés Transborder Biosphere Reserve.
    Parque Etnográfico do Pan e do Viño de Padrendo

 

COLECCIÓN ETNOGRÁFICA DA CASA DE PADRENDO
HOUSE OF PADRENDO ETHNOGRAPHIC COLLECTION
(Lobios (Santa María de Riocaldo))

  • It houses a collection of farming tools used in the past.
  • Lobios is located within the Gerês-Xurés Transborder Biosphere Reserve.

 

HIKING TRAILS

ROTEIRO DA BROA
A BROA TRAIL
Roteiro da Broa

ROTEIRO DOS MUIÑOS DO RÍO GATO
RIVER GATO WATERFALLS TRAIL
Roteiro dos Muiños do Río Gato

PR-G 28  ROTEIRO DE PADRENDO
PADRENDO TRAIL
PR-G 28 Roteiro de Padrendo

ROTEIRO ata O FOXO DO LOBO DE GUENDE
TRAIL towards  WOLF PIT AT GUENDE
Roteiro ata o Foxo do Lobo de Guende

ROTEIRO DO RÍO VILAMEÁ
RIVER VILAMEÁ TRAIL
Roteiro do Río Vilameá

ROTEIRO DO RÍO MAO
RIVER MAO TRAIL
Roteiro do Río Mao

ROTEIRO ETNOGRAFICO DE PUXEDO
ETHNOGRAPHIC TRAIL AT PUXEDO
Roteiro Etnográfico de Puxedo

 

FESTIVALS

ROMARÍA ETNOGRÁFICA RAIGAME
ETHNOGRAPHIC FESTIVAL OF TRADITIONS
(Celanova (Vilanova dos Infantes))

Fiesta de Galicia de Interés Turístico.
Date: May 17th – “Día das Letras Galegas” (Day of Galician Literature).

 

FESTAS ETNOGRÁFICAS DO PAN E DO MILLO
ETHNOGRAPHIC BREAD AND CORN FESTIVALS
(Allariz)

Date: July & August (the first four) & October (the fifth one)

  • These four festivals are related to the process of bread making: reaping, threshing, grinding, and baking.
  • The fifth festival is about the farming and storing corn.
  • Allariz is located within the Allariz Area Biosphere Reserve.
    Festas etnográficas do pan e do millo
    Video

 

FESTA DO PAN DA BAIXA LIMIA
BAIXA LIMIA BREAD FESTIVAL
(Bande (Pereira, Santa María))

Date: the first Sunday in December

  • There are workshops regarding break making.
  • Using rye – the traditional crop in this area – and occasionally cornmeal – a batch of bread is baked in the communal oven.
  • There are also stands of craftspeople of this area.
  • Bande is located within the Gerês-Xurés Transborder Biosphere Reserve.
    Video

 

XORNADAS ETNOGRÁFICAS DO CICLO DO PAN DE PUXEDO
ETHNOGRAPHIC DAYS OF THE BREAD-MAKING CYCLE AT PUXEDO
(Lobios (San Paio de Araúxo))

Dates: July & August (the first three) & October (the fourth one)

  • These four festivals are related to the process of bread making: reaping, threshing, grinding, and baking.
  • The first festival is about reaping (2nd weekend in July), the second about threshing (second weekend in August), the third is about baking (third weekend in August), and the fourth one about grinding (last weekend in October).
  • There are also activities related to traditional games and tales, folk music, etc.
  • Lobios is located within the Gerês-Xurés Transborder Biosphere Reserve.
    Xornadas Etnográficas do Ciclo do Pan en Puxedo

 

ENCONTRO DE CESTEIROS
BASKETMAKERS MEETING
(Allariz (Santa María de Augas Santas))

Date: the last weekend in August

  • During this festival there are among other activities workshops for children and adults, as well as exhibitions and sale of basketry items.
  • Allariz is located within the Allariz Area Biosphere Reserve.
    Video

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